Many of you know the story of the Sony PlayStation. Lesser known is it’s dual affect on Namco and the collateral damage inflicted upon the coin-operated game industry.

Namco (now Bandai Namco) and Sony were each at the top of their respective food chain. Albeit, two different food chains. Namco (Yin), an icon in the world of coin-operated video game amusement and Sony (Yang), arguably the world leader in consumer electronics. Together they found synergy through each other’s unique talents and complementary skills. In combination, the sum was greater than the parts.

The arrival of the Sony PlayStation did more than pull the rug out from console maker Sega. And while Namco collected riches through console software sales, the PlayStation was sending a shockwave through the already fragile coin-operated game industry. In America, some might argue that the arcade industry had become extinct, but it was hardly the case.

Arcade game revenue in 1994 amounted to $7 billion compared to home console sales of $6 billion. In America, it had already survived the Video Game Crash of 1983, the 1985 introduction of the NES and a slew of next generation consoles. As odd as it was, there was a peaceful coexistence between coin-op, console, hand-held and home computer gaming.

Arcades still had legions of fans who came to play the latest and greatest because the best games debuted in arcades. The versions ported to console were then never as good. Lower quality graphics, audio, and controls made for a less immersive experience. Plus, playing in arcades meant you could look your opponent straight in the eye.

For game developers, coin-op was the last refuge where their dreams could become reality. Free of the shackles that surrounded console games, designers operated with greater freedom. Arcade hardware was optimized for what the game required, while console games were just the opposite. Games were designed and modified for the hardware that powered them. Each showcased cutting edge technology of the time. If merited, the game would become packaged with custom controls, large medium-resolution monitors and even a custom cabinet.

Tekken System 11 Arcade PCB. Note the two large Sony processors.

Tekken arcade cabinet, circa 1994

Tekken arcade cabinet, circa 1994

I joined Namco America (now Bandai Namco) in 1993 as their product manager in North America. Knowing the strength of their development teams I believed Namco could compete in the fighting game genre. Within a couple months, I went pitched my concept at Namco Ltd. in Tokyo. My presentation piggybacked on the semi-annual product planning meeting attended by key development and management personnel. Nothing was decided at the meeting, but others in attendance agreed in the market opportunity.

Namco excelled at making games in several genres, but fighting games weren’t one of them. Especially those that would appeal to American players. Within a few weeks of returning to California, I was pleasantly surprised to receive videotapes of very early 3D character modeling experiments.

Around this same time, internal rumblings began about the development of a new lower-cost 3D hardware named System 11. I recall being both pleased and puzzled with this news. The number “11” sounded like any other internally developed hardware. However, the timing of this news was unusual given that System 22 was only recently released.

Typically the economics of hardware development required a certain number of games before realizing a return on investment. Namco was not one to squander money or have an imperfect strategy. Either there was some new big breakthrough, or something else was in the mix.

But solving this conundrum wasn’t my top priority. Namco was a well-oiled game publisher, developing and shipping games like clockwork. I was busy helping R&D to localize, optimize game design, and market games for American players. My pet project was the fighting game that would become Tekken.

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4 Responses to Namco: The Role of Coin-Op in the PlayStation

  1. Bob Weiss says:

    Hi Jerry,
    A little side bar for you regarding the playstation hardware that we used for the production of our coin op games at NAMCO America.
    Unaware we began production of our first games utilizing this hardware, only to discover that we could not export the finished product out of the United States. Seems as though it was O.K. to import the hardware, but we were not able to export it. Turned out there was no one in the U.S. that we could team up with to solve this, not even Sony. The government had concerns about the potential of and for the hardware falling into the wrong hands.
    As such I took it upon myself as Director on Manufacturing, under the direction our COO, Kenji Hisatsune to work with the government to obtain the necessary approval that would allow NAMCO to be able to export the product. When the process was completed, NAMCO became the only company in the U.S. with the government approval that could export product utilizing the playstation hardware.
    Bob Weiss

  2. Bud Leiser says:

    Great article!

    We never did do a class field trip to any arcades. I agree with you thought it’s the games that can’t port to console that dominate the floor space. Especially if they have tickets or prizes.

    Just the other day at Riviera hotel’s pinball museum I saw an “old” game I loved that had a skateboard control system. So much fun and could never be ported without a similar control device. Yet that’s also a double edged sword, because the control is so different it creates a friction barrier. Some people look at it and won’t try it or physically can’t use it.

    • Jerry Momoda says:

      I agree. For some, playing a game like that means they are “on center stage” and feel intimidated.

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